Send to

Choose Destination
Cancer Sci. 2009 Jul;100(7):1173-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2009.01183.x. Epub 2009 Apr 28.

Reviewing the current classification of inhibitor of growth family proteins.

Author information

Laboratory for Biomarker, The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, RIKEN, Tokyo, Japan.


Inhibitor of growth (ING) family proteins have been defined as candidate tumor suppressors for more than a decade. Recent emerging results using siRNA and knockout mice are expanding the previous understanding of this protein family. The results of ING1 knockout mouse experiments revealed that ING1 has a protective effect on apoptosis. Our recent results showed that ING2 is overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and induces colon cancer cell invasion through an MMP13-dependent pathway. Knockdown of ING2 by siRNA induces premature senescence in normal human fibroblast cells, and apoptosis or cell cycle arrest in various adherent cancer cells. Taken together, these results suggest that ING2 may also have roles in cancer progression and/or malignant transformation under some conditions. Additionally, knockdown of ING4 and ING5 by siRNA shows an inhibitory effect on the transition from G(2)/M to G(1) phase and DNA replication, respectively, suggesting that these proteins may play roles during cell proliferation in some context. ING family proteins may play dual roles, similar to transforming growth factor-beta, which has tumor suppressor-like functions in normal epithelium and also oncogenic functions in invasive metastatic cancers. In the present article, we briefly review ING history and propose a possible interpretation of discrepancies between past and recent data.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center