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Am J Occup Ther. 2009 Mar-Apr;63(2):160-71.

Integrating occupational therapy services in a kindergarten curriculum: a look at the outcomes.

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Occupational Therapy Program, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH 44115-2214, USA.



We measured fine motor and emergent literacy outcomes in kindergarteners enrolled in two integrated kindergarten classrooms. The students received fully integrated occupational therapy services. Most occupational therapy services focused on planning and teacher consultation versus direct intervention.


A one-group pretest-posttest descriptive design was used to measure occupational therapy and emergent literacy outcomes in a convenience sample of 37 kindergarten-age children with and without disabilities. Four fine motor and two emergent literacy assessments were administered at the beginning and end of the school year. Data on the amount and type of occupational therapy services were documented over 7 months.


Children without disabilities made statistically significant changes in all areas. Children with disabilities made significant changes in two of the fine motor and three of the emergent literacy assessments.


Findings demonstrated that for this sample of children, significant improvements in fine motor and emergent literacy function were made.

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