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Nat Genet. 2009 Jun;41(6):739-45. doi: 10.1038/ng.366. Epub 2009 May 10.

A common allele in RPGRIP1L is a modifier of retinal degeneration in ciliopathies.

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1
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

Abstract

Despite rapid advances in the identification of genes involved in disease, the predictive power of the genotype remains limited, in part owing to poorly understood effects of second-site modifiers. Here we demonstrate that a polymorphic coding variant of RPGRIP1L (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like), a ciliary gene mutated in Meckel-Gruber (MKS) and Joubert (JBTS) syndromes, is associated with the development of retinal degeneration in individuals with ciliopathies caused by mutations in other genes. As part of our resequencing efforts of the ciliary proteome, we identified several putative loss-of-function RPGRIP1L mutations, including one common variant, A229T. Multiple genetic lines of evidence showed this allele to be associated with photoreceptor loss in ciliopathies. Moreover, we show that RPGRIP1L interacts biochemically with RPGR, loss of which causes retinal degeneration, and that the Thr229-encoded protein significantly compromises this interaction. Our data represent an example of modification of a discrete phenotype of syndromic disease and highlight the importance of a multifaceted approach for the discovery of modifier alleles of intermediate frequency and effect.

PMID:
19430481
PMCID:
PMC2783476
DOI:
10.1038/ng.366
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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