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Vaccine. 2009 Apr 14;27(17):2306-11. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.02.040. Epub 2009 Feb 24.

Amplified immune response by ginsenoside-based nanoparticles (ginsomes).

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Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Animal Sciences, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Rd, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310029, PR China.


We describe here a novel adjuvant of ginsenoside-based nanoparticles (ginsomes) and its activity for up-regulation of immune response in mice. Ginsomes were assembled during removal of the detergent by dialysis in presence of ginseng saponins extracted from the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, cholesterol and phosphatidyl choline. The nanoparticles were spherical with diameters ranging from 70 to 107nm, and contained ginsenosides Rb2, Rc, Rb1 and Rd. When co-administered with a model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) in ICR mice, ginsomes at a dose range from 10 to 250microg promoted significantly higher IgG responses than OVA alone. Co-administration of ginsomes with OVA also significantly increased the levels of specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3, as well as T and B lymphocyte proliferation in response to Con A, LPS and OVA than when OVA was used alone. The enhanced IgG titer and subclass levels paralleled the increased production of IFN-gamma (Th1 cytokine) and IL-5 (Th2 cytokine). Therefore, ginsomes as an adjuvant have up-regulated both Th1 and Th2 immune responses.

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