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Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2009 Aug 10;61(10):795-807. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2009.04.020. Epub 2009 May 8.

Novel nanomedicine-based MRI contrast agents for gynecological malignancies.

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Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Texas Medical Center Campus, 1441 Moursund Street, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


Gynecological cancers result in significant morbidity and mortality in women despite advances in treatment and diagnosis. This is due to detection of the disease in the late stages following metastatic spread in which treatment options become limited and may not result in positive outcomes. In addition, traditional contrast agents are not very effective in detecting primary metastatic tumors and cells due to a lack of specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic tools, which limits their effectiveness. Recently, the field of nanomedicine-based contrast agents offers a great opportunity to develop highly sophisticated devices that can overcome many traditional hurdles of contrast agents including solubility, cell-specific targeting, toxicities, and immunological responses. These nanomedicine-based contrast agents including liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, multifunctional magnetic polymeric nanohybrids, fullerenes, and nanotubes represent improvements over their traditional counterparts, which can significantly advance the field of molecular imaging.

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