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Trends Immunol. 2009 Jun;30(6):271-6. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2009 May 7.

Neurokinin 1 receptor isoforms and the control of innate immunity.

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Joseph Stokes Jr. Research Institute, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, USA.


Substance P is the prototype tachykinin peptide and triggers a variety of biological effects in both the nervous and immune system. Two naturally occurring variants of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) mediate the effects of SP: a 'classic' full-length receptor and a truncated (tail-less) form that lacks 96 amino acid residues at the C-terminus. Most research has focused on the full length receptor and the truncated NK1R has not been extensively explored. Recent data demonstrate that truncated NK1R has important functional roles, including modulation of responses triggered by cytokines, chemotaxis of macrophages and regulation of HIV replication. Targeting the truncated NK1R with pharmacologic agents might result in novel therapeutic approaches in diseases which affect the immune system, including HIV disease.

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