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Immunol Rev. 2009 May;229(1):88-100. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2009.00769.x.

Yin-Yang of costimulation: crucial controls of immune tolerance and function.

Author information

1
Department of Immunology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Abstract

In addition to signals from the T-cell receptor complex, it has been recognized for many years that a 'second' signal, most notably from CD28, is also important in T-cell activation. In the recent years, many new members of CD28 family as well as the molecules that share structural homology to CD28 ligands CD80 and CD86 have been discovered. Interestingly, some of these proteins function to dampen T-cell activation and regulate the induction of T-cell tolerance. Therefore, positive and negative costimulation are the two sides of the coin to fine tune T-cell receptor signaling to determine the outcome of T-cell receptor engagement-tolerance versus function.

PMID:
19426216
PMCID:
PMC2875245
DOI:
10.1111/j.1600-065X.2009.00769.x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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