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Int J Oncol. 2009 Jun;34(6):1737-42.

Integrative genomic analyses of ZEB2: Transcriptional regulation of ZEB2 based on SMADs, ETS1, HIF1alpha, POU/OCT, and NF-kappaB.

Author information

1
M&M Medical BioInformatics, Hongo 113-0033, Japan.

Abstract

Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is defined as phenotypic change of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells. EMT, allowing cellular dissociation from epithelial tissues, plays a key role in invasion and metastasis during carcinogenesis as well as in gastrulation and neurulation during embryogenesis. SNAI1/Snail, SNAI2/Slug, ZEB1/deltaEF1/ZFHX1A, ZEB2/SIP1/ZFHX1B, TWIST1/TWIST, and TWIST2/DERMO1 are representative EMT regulators. ZEB2 represses transcription of CDH1, CLDN4, CCND1, TERT, SFRP1, ALPL and miR-200b-200a-429 primary miRNA, and upregulates transcription of mesenchymal markers. ZEB2 is relatively highly expressed in brain corpus callosum and monocytes. ZEB2 is expressed in various types of human tumors, such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, and pancreatic cancer. TGFbeta, TNFalpha, IL1, AKT and hypoxia signals are involved in ZEB2 upregulation and EMT induction; however precise mechanisms of ZEB2 transcription remained unclear. Here, refined integrative genomic analyses of ZEB2 gene were carried out. ZEB2 was co-expressed with POU3F2 (BRN2) and POU3F3 (BRN1) in brain corpus callosum, spinal cord, and fetal brain, whereas ZEB2 was co-expressed with POU2F2 (OCT2) in monocytes. Ets-Smad-binding CGGAGAC motif, bHLH-binding site, and POU/OCT-binding site within proximal promoter region, and NF-kappaB-binding site within intron 2 were completely conserved in human ZEB2, chimpanzee ZEB2, cow ZEB2, mouse Zeb2, rat Zeb2, and chicken zeb2 genes. In addition, HIF1alpha-binding site within proximal promoter region was conserved in mammalian ZEB2 orthologs. Consensus binding site for Hedgehog effector GLI was not identified within or adjacent to the 7-kb regions of human ZEB2 gene. TGFbeta, TNFalpha, IL1, and hypoxia signals directly upregulate ZEB2 to induce EMT, growth arrest, and senescence, whereas Hedgehog signals indirectly upregulate ZEB2 via TGFbeta. Together these facts indicate that ZEB2, occupying the crossroads of inflammation, aging and carcinogenesis, is an important target for drug discovery.

PMID:
19424592
DOI:
10.3892/ijo_00000304
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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