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J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009 Jun;22(6):715-9. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2009.03.026. Epub 2009 May 7.

Right ventricular function in infants, children and adolescents: reference values of the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) in 640 healthy patients and calculation of z score values.

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Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Medical University Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 30, Graz, Austria.



Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) is an echocardiographic measurement to assess right ventricular systolic function in adults. The aim of this study was to determine growth-related changes in TAPSE to establish references values.


A prospective study was conducted in a group of 640 healthy pediatric patients (age range, 1 day to 18 years; body surface area range, 0.12-2.25 m(2)). The effects of age and body surface area on TAPSE were determined.


TAPSE ranged from a mean of 0.91 cm (z score +/- 3, 0.56-1.26 cm) in neonates to 2.47 cm (z score +/- 3, 1.84-3.10 cm) in 18-year-olds. TAPSE values showed positive correlations with age and body surface area. There was no significant difference in TAPSE values between female or male children.


In this study, z scores of TAPSE values were calculated and percentile charts were established to serve as reference data for ready application in patients with congenital heart disease in the future.

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