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J Hypertens. 2009 Jul;27(7):1439-45. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32832af679.

Association between refractory hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea.

Author information

1
Sleep Research Laboratory of the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases the risk for mild hypertension, but its relationship to refractory hypertension (RHT) has not been systematically examined. We previously reported a high prevalence of OSA in patients with RHT, but did not have a control group with which to compare. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation can raise blood pressure in animals. However, a potential relationship of OSA and REM sleep time with RHT has not been examined.

OBJECTIVE:

To determine whether, compared with patients with well controlled hypertension, those with RHT have a higher prevalence of OSA (apnea-hypopnea index > or = 10 per hour of sleep) and shorter REM sleep time.

METHODS:

We compared the prevalence of OSA and sleep structure in 42 patients with RHT with 22 patients with controlled hypertension, matched for age, sex and BMI.

RESULTS:

Compared with the controlled hypertension group, the RHT group had a significantly higher prevalence of OSA (81 versus 55%, P = 0.03) and less REM sleep time (47.0 +/- 4.5 versus 63.2 +/- 4.9 min, P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed significantly increased odds of having RHT associated with OSA independent of other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio, 3.994; 95% confidence interval, 1.191-13.388). Reduced REM sleep time was also independently associated with the presence of RHT (adjusted odds ratio, 1.025; 95% confidence interval, 1.002-1.049).

CONCLUSION:

OSA and reduced REM sleep time are associated with increased odds of having RHT and, therefore, may play roles in its pathogenesis.

PMID:
19421073
DOI:
10.1097/HJH.0b013e32832af679
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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