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J Behav Med. 1991 Aug;14(4):383-96.

Situational factors and patterns associated with smokeless tobacco use.

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University of Minnesota, Department of Psychiatry, Minneapolis 55455.


Situational factors and topographic features associated with smokeless tobacco use were examined. Male smokeless tobacco users (N = 30) were asked to record the time, activity, and internal states associated with each dip of tobacco use over the course of 10 days. Additionally, these subjects were asked to record the activity and internal state they were experiencing every hour for a 15-hr waking period to obtain baseline rates of these events. Serum and saliva samples were obtained to measure cotinine concentrations. The activities significantly associated with smokeless tobacco use included after a meal, while driving, and while watching television. The internal states associated with smokeless tobacco use were feeling relaxed and depressed. Factor analysis of the events showed factors which are different from those found among cigarette smokers. Examination of the topographic measures of smokeless tobacco use showed that the total dip duration per day was 283.5 min, with a range of 79.7-757.1 min. This measure, along with duration of dipping time (time from onset to offset of smokeless tobacco use during the day), may be the best predictors of nicotine exposure.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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