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Seizure. 2009 Jul;18(6):440-5. doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2009.04.004. Epub 2009 May 5.

A study of 63 cases with eyelid myoclonia with or without absences: type of seizure or an epileptic syndrome?

Author information

1
Neurology Department, Hospital Nacional de PediatrĂ­a. Prof Dr Juan P Garrahan, Buenos Aires, Argentina. rhcaraballo@arnet.com.ar

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Eyelid myoclonia and absences (EMA) induced by eye closure associated with brief, fast, and generalized paroxysms of polyspikes and waves was considered as an epileptic syndrome and a type of seizure as well. We analyzed the electroclinical features and evolution of EMA, and tried to determine if it represents a well-defined epileptic syndrome or a non-specific condition associated to other epilepsies.

METHODS:

Between June 1994 and June 2005, 63 patients who met diagnostic criteria of EMA were enrolled in the study and have been followed up to the present time.

RESULTS:

Two main groups could be identified. The first group was divided into two subgroups. One subgroup of 28 patients presented EMA associated with infrequent generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS), and the other 1 of 9 patients presented early-onset EMA refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), associated or not with GTCS and mental retardation. Four of them had self-induced seizures. The second group included 26 patients with EMA associated with GTCS and/or massive myoclonias, or GTCS induced by intermittent photic stimulation. All these patients had electroclinical features compatible with idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

CONCLUSION:

In the first group, EMA should be considered as a photosensitive idiopathic epileptic syndrome. A subgroup of early-onset of EMA refractory to AEDs, associated or not with GTCS and mental retardation should also be considered as a variant or a distinct photosensitive idiopathic epileptic syndrome. Finally, in the second group EMA may correspond to a type of seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

PMID:
19419888
DOI:
10.1016/j.seizure.2009.04.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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