Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Genes Dev. 2009 May 1;23(9):1119-30. doi: 10.1101/gad.518109.

Yeast mitochondrial Gln-tRNA(Gln) is generated by a GatFAB-mediated transamidation pathway involving Arc1p-controlled subcellular sorting of cytosolic GluRS.

Author information

  • 1UPR 9002, Architecture et Réactivité de l'ARN, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Institut de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Strasbourg, France.


It is impossible to predict which pathway, direct glutaminylation of tRNA(Gln) or tRNA-dependent transamidation of glutamyl-tRNA(Gln), generates mitochondrial glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) for protein synthesis in a given species. The report that yeast mitochondria import both cytosolic glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA(Gln) has challenged the widespread use of the transamidation pathway in organelles. Here we demonstrate that yeast mitochondrial glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) is in fact generated by a transamidation pathway involving a novel type of trimeric tRNA-dependent amidotransferase (AdT). More surprising is the fact that cytosolic glutamyl-tRNA synthetase ((c)ERS) is imported into mitochondria, where it constitutes the mitochondrial nondiscriminating ERS that generates the mitochondrial mischarged glutamyl-tRNA(Gln) substrate for the AdT. We show that dual localization of (c)ERS is controlled by binding to Arc1p, a tRNA nuclear export cofactor that behaves as a cytosolic anchoring platform for (c)ERS. Expression of Arc1p is down-regulated when yeast cells are switched from fermentation to respiratory metabolism, thus allowing increased import of (c)ERS to satisfy a higher demand of mitochondrial glutaminyl-tRNA(Gln) for mitochondrial protein synthesis. This novel strategy that enables a single protein to be localized in both the cytosol and mitochondria provides a new paradigm for regulation of the dynamic subcellular distribution of proteins between membrane-separated compartments.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center