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Mol Carcinog. 2009 Aug;48(8):671-7. doi: 10.1002/mc.20548.

Urothelial overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 increases susceptibility to p-cresidine-induced bladder carcinogenesis in transgenic mice.

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Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.


To establish a role for insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in bladder cancer susceptibility, we tested the effect of p-cresidine, a potent bladder carcinogen, in transgenic (TG) mice with human IGF-1 expression in the bladder driven by the bovine keratin 5 promoter (referred to as BK5.IGF-1 TG mice). Indomethacin was also tested to determine if the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway is a target for bladder cancer prevention in this model. Thirty-three female BK5.IGF-1 TG mice and 29 female nontransgenic littermates were randomized to the following treatments: (1) AIN-76A diet; (2) AIN-76A diet with 0.5% p-cresidine; or (3) AIN-76A diet with 0.5% p-cresidine + 0.00075% indomethacin. BK5.IGF-1 TG mice, with twofold greater total serum IGF-1 than nontransgenic mice, exhibited greatly increased susceptibility to p-cresidine-induced bladder tumors compared to nontransgenic mice. The most common type of bladder tumor in the BK5.IGF-1 TG mice was transitional cell carcinoma, which is the predominant type of bladder cancer observed in developed countries. Indomethacin inhibition of bladder tumor development in BK5.IGF-1 TG mice was not statistically significant. These results present further evidence for the role of IGF-1 in bladder cancer progression. In addition, these transgenic mice provide a useful model for studying the role of the IGF-1 pathway in bladder carcinogenesis and its prevention.

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