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Carcinogenesis. 2009 Jul;30(7):1209-16. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgp106. Epub 2009 May 4.

Linoleic acid metabolite suppresses skin inflammation and tumor promotion in mice: possible roles of programmed cell death 4 induction.

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Division of Food Science and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.


(+/-)-13-Hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid (13-HOA) is one of the lipoxygenase metabolites of linoleic acid (LA) from corn germ. Recently, we reported that this metabolite suppressed the expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced proinflammatory genes in murine macrophages by disrupting mitogen-activated protein kinases and Akt pathways. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of 13-HOA on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation in ears and skin, as well as tumor promotion in female ICR mice. Pretreatment with 13-HOA (1600 nmol) inhibited ear edema formation by 95% (P < 0.05) in an inflammation test and reduced tumor incidence and the number of tumors per mouse by 40 and 64% (P < 0.05 each), respectively, in a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model. Histological examinations revealed that it decreased epidermal thickness, the number of infiltrated leukocytes and cell proliferation index. Furthermore, 13-HOA (8-40 muM) suppressed TPA-induced anchorage-independent growth of JB6 mouse epidermal cells by 70-100%, whereas LA was virtually inactive. 13-HOA (40 muM) inhibited TPA-induced activator protein-1 transactivation but not extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 activation. Interestingly, 13-HOA (40 muM and 1600 nmol in JB6 cells and mouse skin, respectively) induced expression of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4), a novel tumor suppressor protein. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a food factor that is able to induce Pdcd4 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that 13-HOA may be a novel anti-inflammatory and antitumor chemopreventive agent with a unique mode of action.

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