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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009 May;4(5):996-1008. doi: 10.2215/CJN.04040808. Epub 2009 Apr 30.

Stent placement in hemodialysis access: historical lessons, the state of the art and future directions.

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Department of Medicine, Section of Interventional Nephrology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.


Vascular access stenosis in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis is a major issue that is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and cost of medical care. Recent data have emphasized that endovascular stents could be used in the treatment of central as well as peripheral stenotic lesions. In general, a peripheral or central vein lesion that is elastic or recurs within a three-month period after an initially successful balloon angioplasty or a stenosis where surgical revision is not possible are some indications for intravascular stent placement. Recent reports have expanded the role of stents in the management of pseudoaneurysms associated with dialysis access. In this context, the utilization of these devices must take into account a fair comparison with the traditional (surgical) approaches regarding effectiveness as well as costs. This report describes the role of stents in arteriovenous dialysis access. In addition, some of the recent advances in the structure and complicating issues such as stent fracture, migration, and infection, as well cannulation through the stent, are discussed.

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