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Am J Ophthalmol. 2009 Jul;148(1):111-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajo.2009.02.031. Epub 2009 May 5.

Screening for diabetic retinopathy: 1 and 3 nonmydriatic 45-degree digital fundus photographs vs 7 standard early treatment diabetic retinopathy study fields.

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1
Fondazione G.B. Bietti per l'Oftalmologia, IRCCS (Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientificio), Roma, Italy.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To evaluate if simple- or multiple-field digital color nonmydriatic (NM) retinal images can replace 7 standard stereoscopic fundus photographs in the screening of diabetic retinopathy (DR).

DESIGN:

Prospective, masked, comparative case series.

METHODS:

One hundred and eight eyes of 55 diabetics were studied to determine single lesions and to grade clinical levels of DR and diabetic macular edema (DME) using both 1 and 3 NM digital color retinal images compared with the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 7 standard 35-mm stereoscopic color fundus photographs (7F-ETDRS). All eyes underwent NM 45-degree field images of 1 central field (1F-NM), NM 45-degree field images of 3 fields (3F-NM), and, after pupil dilatation, 30-degree 7F-ETDRS photography. Images were analyzed by 2 independent, masked retinal specialists (S.V. and E.B.), lesion-by-lesion according to the ETDRS protocol and for clinical severity level of DR and DME according to the international classification of DR.

RESULTS:

Using 7F-ETDRS as the gold standard, agreement was substantial for grading clinical levels of DR and DME (kappa = 0.69 and kappa = 0.75) vs 3F-NM; moderate for DR level (kappa = 0.56) and substantial for DME (kappa = 0.66) vs 1F-NM; almost perfect for detecting presence or absence of DR (kappa = 0.88) vs both 1F-NM and 3F-NM; and almost perfect for presence or absence of DME (kappa = 0.97) vs 3F-NM and substantial (kappa = 0.75) vs 1F-NM. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting referable levels of DR were 82% and 92%, respectively, for 3F-NM and 71% and 96%, respectively, for 1F-NM.

CONCLUSIONS:

Three color 45-degree NM fundus fields may be an effective tool in a screening setting to determine critical levels of DR and DME for prompt specialist referral. One central 45-degree image is sufficient to determine absence or presence of DR and DME, but not for grading it.

PMID:
19406376
DOI:
10.1016/j.ajo.2009.02.031
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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