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Proteomics. 2009 May;9(10):2695-710. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200800780.

First evidence of a membrane-bound, tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine producing, tyrosine decarboxylase in Enterococcus faecalis: a two-dimensional electrophoresis proteomic study.

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Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell'Uomo, University of Torino, Via Accademia Albertina 13, Turin, Italy.


The soluble and membrane proteome of a tyramine producing Enterococcus faecalis, isolated from an Italian goat cheese, was investigated. A detailed analysis revealed that this strain also produces small amounts of beta-phenylethylamine. Kinetics of tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine accumulation, evaluated in tyrosine plus phenylalanine-enriched cultures (stimulated condition), suggest that the same enzyme, the tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC), catalyzes both tyrosine and phenylalanine decarboxylation: tyrosine was recognized as the first substrate and completely converted into tyramine (100% yield) while phenylalanine was decarboxylated to beta-phenylethylamine (10% yield) only when tyrosine was completely depleted. The presence of an aspecific aromatic amino acid decarboxylase is a common feature in eukaryotes, but in bacteria only indirect evidences of a phenylalanine decarboxylating TDC have been presented so far. Comparative proteomic investigations, performed by 2-DE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS, on bacteria grown in conditions stimulating tyramine and beta-phenylethylamine biosynthesis and in control conditions revealed 49 differentially expressed proteins. Except for aromatic amino acid biosynthetic enzymes, no significant down-regulation of the central metabolic pathways was observed in stimulated conditions, suggesting that tyrosine decarboxylation does not compete with the other energy-supplying routes. The most interesting finding is a membrane-bound TDC highly over-expressed during amine production. This is the first evidence of a true membrane-bound TDC, longly suspected in bacteria on the basis of the gene sequence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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