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J Nutr. 2009 Jun;139(6):1185-91. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.106617. Epub 2009 Apr 29.

Xanthones from mangosteen prevent lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes.

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Department of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.


The xanthones, alpha- and gamma-mangostin (MG), are major bioactive compounds found in mangosteen and are reported to have antiinflammatory properties in several murine models. Given the association between obesity, chronic low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance, we examined the effects of alpha- and gamma-MG on markers of inflammation and insulin resistance in primary cultures of newly differentiated human adipocytes treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). alpha- and gamma-MG decreased the induction by LPS of inflammatory genes, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and Toll-like receptor-2. Moreover, alpha- and gamma-MG attenuated LPS activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-related kinase, and p38. alpha- and gamma-MG also attenuated LPS activation of c-Jun and activator protein (AP)-1 activity. gamma-MG was more effective than alpha-MG on an equimolar basis. Furthermore, gamma-MG but not alpha-MG attenuated LPS-mediated IkappaB-alpha degradation and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity. In addition, gamma-MG prevented the suppression by LPS of insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and PPAR-gamma and adiponectin gene expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate that MG attenuates LPS-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in human adipocytes, possibly by inhibiting the activation of MAPK, NF-kappaB, and AP-1.

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