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J Dent. 2009 Jul;37(7):560-6. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2009.03.017. Epub 2009 Apr 5.

Polyphenolic beverages reduce initial bacterial adherence to enamel in situ.

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Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Freiburg, Hugstetter Str. 55, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany.



Polyphenols are antibacterial and anti-oxidative natural agents. The present in situ study aimed to investigate the effect of different polyphenolic beverages on initial bacterial adherence to enamel in the oral cavity.


Initial biofilm formation was performed on bovine enamel specimens mounted buccally on individual upper jaw splints and carried by six subjects. After 1 min of pellicle formation, oral rinses with black tea, green tea, grape juice, Cistus tea or red wine were performed for 10 min. Afterwards the slabs were carried for another 19 or 109 min, respectively. Samples exposed to the oral fluids for 30 and 120 min served as controls. Following intraoral exposure, the slabs were rinsed with saline solution. The amount of adherent bacteria was determined with DAPI-staining (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and with fluorescence-in situ hybridization (FISH) of eubacteria and streptococci.


Rinses with all beverages reduced the amount of detectable bacteria. Lowest number of adherent bacteria was found following rinses with red wine, Cistus tea and black tea as measured with DAPI (up to 66% reduction of adherent bacteria vs. controls). Also FISH revealed significant impact of most tested beverages.


Rinses with certain polyphenolic beverages as well as consumption of these foodstuffs may contribute to prevention of biofilm induced diseases in the oral cavity.

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