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Mutat Res. 2009 Jun 18;666(1-2):57-63. doi: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.04.003. Epub 2009 Apr 22.

Genetic polymorphisms in XRCC1, OGG1, APE1 and XRCC3 DNA repair genes, ionizing radiation exposure and chromosomal DNA damage in interventional cardiologists.

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CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa, Italy.


Interventional cardiologists working in high-volume cardiac catheterization laboratory are exposed to significant occupational radiation risks. Common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes are thought to modify the effects of low-dose radiation exposure on DNA damage, the main initiating event in the development of cancer and hereditary disease. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between XRCC1 (Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln), OGG1 (Ser326Cys), APE1 (Asp148Glu) and XRCC3 (Thr241Met) SNPs and chromosomal DNA damage. We enrolled 77 subjects: 40 interventional cardiologists (27 male, 41.3+/-9.4 years and 13 female, 37.8+/-8.4 years) and 37 clinical cardiologists (26 male, 39.4+/-9.5 years and 11 female, 35.0+/-9.8 years) without radiation exposure as the control group. Micronucleus (MN) assay was performed as biomarker of chromosomal DNA damage and an early predictor of cancer. MN frequency was significantly higher in interventional cardiologists than in clinical physicians (19.7+/-7.8 per thousand vs. 13.5+/-6.3 per thousand, p=0.0003). Within the exposed group, individuals carrying a XRCC3 Met241 allele had higher frequency than homozygous XRCC3 Thr241 (21.2+/-7.8 per thousand vs. 16.6+/-7.1 per thousand, p=0.03). Individuals with two or more risk alleles showed a higher MN frequency when compared to subjects with one or no risk allele (18.4+/-6.6 per thousand vs. 14.4+/-6.1 per thousand, p=0.02). An interactive effect was found between smoking, exposure >10 years and the presence of the two or more risk alleles on the MN frequency (F=6.3, p=0.02). XRCC3 241Met alleles, particularly in combination with multiple risk alleles of DNA repair genes, contribute to chromosomal DNA damage levels in interventional cardiologists.

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