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Phys Rev Lett. 2009 Apr 3;102(13):136401. Epub 2009 Mar 30.

Theoretical description of time-resolved photoemission spectroscopy: application to pump-probe experiments.

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Department of Physics, Georgetown University, 37th and O Sts. NW, Washington, District of Columbia 20057, USA.


The theory for time-resolved, pump-probe, photoemission spectroscopy and other pump-probe experiments is developed. The formal development is completely general, incorporating all of the nonequilibrium effects of the pump pulse and the finite time width of the probe pulse, and including possibilities for taking into account band structure and matrix element effects, surface states, and the interaction of the photoexcited electrons with the system leading to corrections to the sudden approximation. We also illustrate the effects of windowing that arise from the finite width of the probe pulse in a simple model system by assuming the quasiequilibrium approximation.

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