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IUBMB Life. 2009 May;61(5):504-9. doi: 10.1002/iub.184.

Retinal deimination in aging and disease.

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Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, USA.

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  • IUBMB Life. 2009 Aug;61(8):864.


Deimination is a posttranslational modification and refers to the conversion of protein bound arginine into citrulline. In the retina, deimination is predominantly catalyzed by Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 (PAD2). PAD2 expression and deimination are found in many different retinal layers: choroid, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), photoreceptors, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer. Although decreased retinal deimination and PAD2 expression have been found during normal aging, elevated PAD2 expression and deimination have been observed in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The role of deimination in normal physiology and in late-onset and progressive ocular or retinal degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis remains to be elucidated.

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