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Eat Disord. 2009 May-Jun;17(3):187-99. doi: 10.1080/10640260902848477.

The relationship between anabolic androgenic steroids and muscle dysmorphia: a review.

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Department of Mental Health, St. George's University of London, 43 Broadwater Road, Tooting, London SW17 0DU, UK.


This review explores the condition of muscle dysmorphia (MD) and its relationship with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Particular emphasis is placed upon whether anabolic steroids are a predisposing, precipitating or perpetuating factor of MD. Furthermore, psychiatric complications of AAS abuse are examined. The current evidence from the literature suggests that AAS (ab)use is possibly a perpetuating factor in the evolution of MD. Psychiatric complications of AAS include mood and behavior changes, perceptual abnormalities, and withdrawal symptoms. In addition, there appears to be a credible dependence theory to AAS in fruition.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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