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Indian J Pediatr. 2009 Jan;76(1):57-70. doi: 10.1007/s12098-009-0030-4. Epub 2009 Apr 18.

Diagnosis and management of cyanotic congenital heart disease: part I.

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Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas-Houston Medical School/Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.


Most commonly encountered cyanotic cardiac lesions in children, namely, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries and tricuspid atresia are reviewed. Pathology, pathophysiology, clinical features, non-invasive and invasive laboratory studies and management are discussed. The clinical and non-invasive laboratory features are sufficiently characteristic for making the diagnosis and invasive cardiac catheterization and angiographic studies are not routinely required and are needed either to define features, not clearly defined by non-invasive studies or as a part of catheter-based intervention. Surgical correction or effective palliation can be undertaken with relatively low risk. However, residual defects, some requiring repeat catheter or surgical intervention, are present in a significant percentage of patients and therefore, continued follow-up after surgery is mandatory.

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