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Nitric Oxide. 2009 Aug;21(1):27-36. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2009.04.002. Epub 2009 Apr 21.

Nitric oxide enhances osteoclastogenesis possibly by mediating cell fusion.

Author information

1
Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Abstract

Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone resorbing cells which form by fusion of pre-osteoclasts. Here, we investigate how nitric oxide (NO) affects osteoclastogenesis. Time lapse photomicrography, using the fluorescent NO indicator dye, 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate, revealed an intense NO signal in pre-osteoclasts preceding cell fusion. Osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells increased when exposed to the NO synthase inhibitor, L-NMMA (0.25 microM), for the initial 48 h. In contrast, pre-osteoclast fusion decreased when RAW264.7 cells were exposed to L-NMMA from 48 to 96 h. Both NO synthase inhibitors, L-NMMA and L-NAME, decreased osteoclast formation during this time period. The inhibitory effect of L-NMMA on osteoclast formation was abolished with increasing concentrations (25-200 ng/ml) of sRANKL suggesting signaling cross talk. NO donors increased osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner, with greatest stimulation at 15 microM NOC-12 (2.3 fold) and 5 microM NOC-18 (2.4 fold). Measuring nitrite (NO end product) daily from culture media of RAW264.7 cells undergoing osteoclastogenesis revealed that an increase in NO production coincided with the fusion of pre-osteoclasts (day 4). Inhibiting fusion by plating cells on polystyrene dishes pre-coated with poly-(L-lysine) decreased both osteoclast formation and NO production. To address if NO mediates fusion through the actin cytoskeleton, actin free barbed ends were measured. 0.25 microM L-NMMA decreased, while 15 microM NOC-12 and 5 microM NOC-18 increased actin free barbed ends. We hypothesize that while NO initially negatively regulates pre-osteoclast differentiation; it later facilitates the fusion of mononuclear pre-osteoclasts, possibly by up regulating actin remodeling.

PMID:
19389479
DOI:
10.1016/j.niox.2009.04.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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