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Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2009 May;18(5):637-46. doi: 10.1517/13543780902855316 .

VEGF inhibitors for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

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Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.


Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the Western world for those patients aged 50 years or older. Neovascular AMD, a subtype characterized by the growth of new, pathologic blood vessels, results in most of the cases of severe and rapid vision loss associated with AMD. A critical activator of angiogenesis in neovascular AMD is VEGF. Several therapies have been and are now being developed for neovascular AMD, with the goal of inhibiting VEGF. These VEGF inhibitors include the RNA aptamer pegaptanib, partial and full-length antibodies ranibizumab and bevacizumab, VEGF receptor decoy VEGF Trap, small interfering RNA-based therapies bevasiranib and AGN211745, sirolimus, and tyrosine kinase inhibitors including vatalanib, pazopanib, TG100801, TG101095, AG013958 and AL39324. At present, established therapies have met with great success in reducing the vision loss associated with neovascular AMD, whereas those still investigational in nature offer the potential for further advances.

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