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Prog Neurobiol. 2009 Feb;87(3):181-94.

Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease: amyloid-beta oligomers trigger innate immunity defence via pattern recognition receptors.

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Department of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland.


The inflammatory process has a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies indicate that inflammation is not merely a bystander in neurodegeneration but a powerful pathogenetic force in the disease process. Increased production of amyloid-beta peptide species can activate the innate immunity system via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and evoke Alzheimer's pathology. We will focus on the role of innate immunity system of brain in the initiation and the propagation of inflammatory process in AD. We examine here in detail the significance of amyloid-beta oligomers and fibrils as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in the activation of a wide array of PRRs in glial cells and neurons, such as Toll-like, NOD-like, formyl peptide, RAGE and scavenger receptors along with complement and pentraxin systems. We also characterize the signaling pathways triggered by different PRRs in evoking inflammatory responses. In addition, we will discuss whether AD pathology could be the outcome of chronic activation of the innate immunity defence in the brain of AD patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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