Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 5;106(18):7660-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0812219106. Epub 2009 Apr 20.

Phytochromes promote seedling light responses by inhibiting four negatively-acting phytochrome-interacting factors.

Author information

Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701, Korea.


PIF3 is a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that negatively regulates light responses, including hypocotyl elongation, cotyledon opening, and hypocotyl negative gravitropism. However, the role of PIF3 in chlorophyll biosynthesis has not been clearly defined. Here, we show that PIF3 also negatively regulates chlorophyll biosynthesis by repressing biosynthetic genes in the dark. Consistent with the gene expression patterns, the etiolated pif3 mutant accumulated a higher amount of protochlorophyllide and was bleached severely when transferred into light. The photobleaching phenotype of pif3 could be suppressed by the gun5 mutation and mimicked by overexpression of GUN5. When 4 negative phytochrome-interacting protein genes (PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5) were mutated, the resulting quadruple mutant seedlings displayed constitutive photomorphogenic phenotypes, including short hypocotyls, open cotyledons, and disrupted hypocotyl gravitropism in the dark. Microarray analysis further confirmed that the dark-grown quadruple mutant has a gene expression pattern similar to that of red light-grown WT. Together, our data indicate that 4 phytochrome-interacting proteins are required for skotomorphogenesis and phytochromes activate photomorphogenesis by inhibiting these factors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center