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Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53(7):909-24. doi: 10.1387/ijdb.082747rb.

A twist of insight - the role of Twist-family bHLH factors in development.

Author information

1
Riley Heart Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Indiana Medical School, Indianapolis, USA.

Abstract

Members of the Twist-family of bHLH proteins play a pivotal role in a number of essential developmental programs. Twist-family bHLH proteins function by dimerizing with other bHLH members and binding to cis- regulatory elements, called E-boxes. While Twist-family members may simply exhibit a preference in terms of high-affinity binding partners, a complex, multilevel cascade of regulation creates a dynamic role for these bHLH proteins. We summarize in this review information on each Twist-family member concerning expression pattern, function, regulation, downstream targets, and interactions with other bHLH proteins. Additionally, we focus on the phospho-regulatory mechanisms that tightly control posttranslational modification of Twist-family member bHLH proteins.

PMID:
19378251
PMCID:
PMC2737731
DOI:
10.1387/ijdb.082747rb
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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