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Opt Express. 1997 Dec 22;1(13):391-403.

Instrumentation and design of a frequency-domain diffuse optical tomography imager for breast cancer detection.


The instrument development and design of a prototype frequency-domain optical imaging device for breast cancer detection is described in detail. This device employs radio-frequency intensity modulated near-infrared light to image quantitatively both the scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue. The functioning components of the system include a laser diode and a photomultiplier tube, which are multiplexed automatically through 32 large core fiber optic bundles using high precision linear translation stages. Image reconstruction is based on a finite element solution of the diffusion equation. This tool for solving the forward problem of photon migration is coupled to an iterative optical property estimation algorithm, which uses a Levenberg-Marquardt routine with total variation minimization. The result of this development is an automated frequency-domain optical imager for computed tomography which produces quantitatively accurate images of the test phantoms used to date. This paper is a description and characterization of an automated frequency-domain computed tomography scanner, which is more quantitative than earlier systems used in diaphanography because of the combination of intensity modulated signal detection and iterative image reconstruction.

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