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Cell Microbiol. 2009 Jul;11(7):1034-43. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2009.01323.x. Epub 2009 Apr 6.

Evolving concepts in biofilm infections.

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1
Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA. lstoodle@wpahs.org

Abstract

Several pathogens associated with chronic infections, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis pneumonia, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in chronic otitis media, Staphylococcus aureus in chronic rhinosinusitis and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in recurrent urinary tract infections, are linked to biofilm formation. Biofilms are usually defined as surface-associated microbial communities, surrounded by an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) matrix. Biofilm formation has been demonstrated for numerous pathogens and is clearly an important microbial survival strategy. However, outside of dental plaques, fewer reports have investigated biofilm development in clinical samples. Typically biofilms are found in chronic diseases that resist host immune responses and antibiotic treatment and these characteristics are often cited for the ability of bacteria to persist in vivo. This review examines some recent attempts to examine the biofilm phenotype in vivo and discusses the challenges and implications for defining a biofilm phenotype.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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