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Mol Cell Biochem. 2009 Sep;329(1-2):35-44. doi: 10.1007/s11010-009-0112-7. Epub 2009 Apr 17.

Developmental function of Nm23/awd: a mediator of endocytosis.

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Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, 86 Jonathan Lucas St., Charleston, SC 29425, USA.


The metastasis suppressor gene Nm23 is highly conserved from yeast to human, implicating a critical developmental function. Studies in cultured mammalian cells have identified several potential functions, but many have not been directly verified in vivo. Here, we summarize the studies on the Drosophila homolog of the Nm23 gene, named a bnormal w ing d iscs (awd), which shares 78% amino acid identity with the human Nm23-H1 and H2 isoforms. These studies confirmed that awd gene encodes a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, and provided strong evidence of a role for awd in regulating cell differentiation and motility via regulation of growth factor receptor signaling. The latter function is mainly mediated by control of endocytosis. This review provides a historical account of the discovery and subsequent analyses of the awd gene. We will also discuss the possible molecular function of the Awd protein that underlies the endocytic function.

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