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J Antibiot (Tokyo). 2009 Jun;62(6):295-302. doi: 10.1038/ja.2009.31. Epub 2009 Apr 17.

Identification of a new antimicrobial lysine-rich cyclolipopeptide family from Xenorhabdus nematophila.

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Selectbiotics, Nîmes, France.


Entomopathogenic bacteria of the genus Xenorhabdus are known to be symbiotically associated with soil dwelling nematodes of the Steinernematidae family. These bacteria are transported by their nematode hosts into the hemocoel of the insect larvae, where they proliferate and produce insecticidal proteins, inhibitors of the insect immune system and antimicrobial molecules. In this study, we describe the discovery of a new family (PAX) of five antimicrobial compounds produced by fermentation of the Xenorhabdus nematophila F1 strain and purified by cation exchange chromatography and reversed phase chromatography. The chemical structure of PAX 3, a lysine-rich cyclolipopetide, was obtained from the analysis of homo and heteronuclear 2D NMR and confirmed by MS-MS experiments. The five members of the PAX family showed significant activity against plants and human fungal pathogens and moderate activity against few bacteria and yeast. No cytotoxicity was observed on CHO or insect cells.

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