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J Biol Chem. 2009 Jun 12;284(24):16298-307. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.000067. Epub 2009 Apr 15.

APH1 polar transmembrane residues regulate the assembly and activity of presenilin complexes.

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1
Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H2, Canada.

Abstract

Complexes involved in the gamma/epsilon-secretase-regulated intramembranous proteolysis of substrates such as the amyloid-beta precursor protein are composed primarily of presenilin (PS1 or PS2), nicastrin, anterior pharynx defective-1 (APH1), and PEN2. The presenilin aspartyl residues form the catalytic site, and similar potentially functional polar transmembrane residues in APH1 have been identified. Substitution of charged (E84A, R87A) or polar (Q83A) residues in TM3 had no effect on complex assembly or activity. In contrast, changes to either of two highly conserved histidines (H171A, H197A) located in TM5 and TM6 negatively affected PS1 cleavage and altered binding to other secretase components, resulting in decreased amyloid generating activity. Charge replacement with His-to-Lys substitutions rescued nicastrin maturation and PS1 endoproteolysis leading to assembly of the formation of structurally normal but proteolytically inactive gamma-secretase complexes. Substitution with a negatively charged side chain (His-to-Asp) or altering the structural location of the histidines also disrupted gamma-secretase binding and abolished functionality of APH1. These results suggest that the conserved transmembrane histidine residues contribute to APH1 function and can affect presenilin catalytic activity.

PMID:
19369254
PMCID:
PMC2713549
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M109.000067
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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