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Epilepsy Behav. 2009 Jul;15(3):278-86. doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.04.001. Epub 2009 Jun 17.

A practical procedure for real-time functional mapping of eloquent cortex using electrocorticographic signals in humans.

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Brain-Computer Interface R&D Program, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA.


Functional mapping of eloquent cortex is often necessary prior to invasive brain surgery, but current techniques that derive this mapping have important limitations. In this article, we demonstrate the first comprehensive evaluation of a rapid, robust, and practical mapping system that uses passive recordings of electrocorticographic signals. This mapping procedure is based on the BCI2000 and SIGFRIED technologies that we have been developing over the past several years. In our study, we evaluated 10 patients with epilepsy from four different institutions and compared the results of our procedure with the results derived using electrical cortical stimulation (ECS) mapping. The results show that our procedure derives a functional motor cortical map in only a few minutes. They also show a substantial concurrence with the results derived using ECS mapping. Specifically, compared with ECS maps, a next-neighbor evaluation showed no false negatives, and only 0.46 and 1.10% false positives for hand and tongue maps, respectively. In summary, we demonstrate the first comprehensive evaluation of a practical and robust mapping procedure that could become a new tool for planning of invasive brain surgeries.

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