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J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 21;284(34):22952-60. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M809643200. Epub 2009 Apr 10.

Architecture and molecular mechanism of PAN, the archaeal proteasome regulatory ATPase.

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Department of Biological Regulation, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel.


In Archaea, an hexameric ATPase complex termed PAN promotes proteins unfolding and translocation into the 20 S proteasome. PAN is highly homologous to the six ATPases of the eukaryotic 19 S proteasome regulatory complex. Thus, insight into the mechanism of PAN function may reveal a general mode of action mutual to the eukaryotic 19 S proteasome regulatory complex. In this study we generated a three-dimensional model of PAN from tomographic reconstruction of negatively stained particles. Surprisingly, this reconstruction indicated that the hexameric complex assumes a two-ring structure enclosing a large cavity. Assessment of distinct three-dimensional functional states of PAN in the presence of adenosine 5'-O-(thiotriphosphate) and ADP and in the absence of nucleotides outlined a possible mechanism linking nucleotide binding and hydrolysis to substrate recognition, unfolding, and translocation. A novel feature of the ATPase complex revealed in this study is a gate controlling the "exit port" of the regulatory complex and, presumably, translocation into the 20 S proteasome. Based on our structural and biochemical findings, we propose a possible model in which substrate binding and unfolding are linked to structural transitions driven by nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, whereas translocation into the proteasome only depends upon the presence of an unfolded substrate and binding but not hydrolysis of nucleotide.

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