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BMC Infect Dis. 2009 Apr 12;9:41. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-41.

Clinical outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species: a retrospective matched case-control study.

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1
Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea. khsongmd@gmail.com

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Clinical outcomes of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species (ESBL-EK) have not been adequately investigated.

METHODS:

We conducted a retrospective matched case-control study to evaluate the outcomes of SBP due to ESBL-EK compared with those due to non-ESBL-EK. Cases were defined as patients with liver cirrhosis and SBP due to ESBL-EK isolated from ascites. Control patients with liver cirrhosis and SBP due to non-ESBL-EK were matched in a 3:1 ratio to cases according to the following five variables: age (+/- 5 years); gender; species of infecting organism; Child-Pugh score (+/- 2); Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (+/- 2). 'Effective initial therapy' was defined as less than 72 hours elapsing between the time of obtaining a sample for culture and the start of treatment with an antimicrobial agent to which the EK was susceptible. Cephalosporin use for ESBL-EK was considered 'ineffective', irrespective of the minimum inhibitory concentration. ESBL production was determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines on stored isolates.

RESULTS:

Of 1026 episodes of SBP in 958 patients from Jan 2000 through Dec 2006, 368 (35.9%) episodes in 346 patients were caused by SBP due to EK, isolated from ascites. Of these 346 patients, twenty-six (7.5%) patients with SBP due to ESBL-EK were compared with 78 matched controls. Treatment failure, evaluated at 72 hours after initial antimicrobial therapy, was greater among the cases (15/26, 58% vs. 10/78, 13%, P = .006); 30-day mortality rate was also higher than in the controls (12/26, 46% vs. 11/78, 15%, P = .001). When the case were classified according to the effectiveness of the initial therapy, 'ineffective initial therapy' was associated with higher 30-day mortality rate (11/18, 61% vs. 1/8, 13%, P = .036).

CONCLUSION:

SBP due to ESBL-EK had poorer outcomes than SBP due to non-ESBL-EK. Ineffective initial therapy seems to be responsible for the higher rate of treatment failure and mortality in SBP due to ESBL-EK.

PMID:
19361340
PMCID:
PMC2671512
DOI:
10.1186/1471-2334-9-41
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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