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Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Jun;19(3):135-40. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1202860. Epub 2009 Apr 9.

Endovascular therapy of renovascular hypertension in children: single center analysis.

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Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Zagreb, KBC Zagreb, Croatia.



We present our results after percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA) and stent implantation in the treatment of eight children with renal artery stenosis (RAS) with consequential development of malignant renovascular hypertension (RVH) despite the administration of antihypertensive drugs.


In the period between January 2000 and November 2007, endovascular interventional procedures in the renal arteries were performed in 8 children (six boys and two girls) to treat malignant RVH caused by RAS. The mean patient age+/-standard deviation was 10.8 years+/-3.7 years (median age 9 years; range 8-17 years). Interdisciplinary discussion and evaluation of the indications for endovascular treatment was carried out for all of the eight patients. Our indications for the PTRA procedure were severe RVH with arterial blood pressure (BP) values above the 99th percentile, which did not respond to the administration of antihypertensive drugs. Renal artery stenting was performed due to re-stenosis after PTRA.


Diagnostic digital subtraction angiography demonstrated unilateral RAS of the main renal artery in seven children and bilateral stenosis of the renal arteries in one child. We performed 11 endovascular interventions on 9 main renal arteries in 8 children (10 PTRA and one stent placement). In 7 of 8 children, complete correction of RAS was achieved. Follow-up assessment over a mean period of 39 months (range 6-84 months) showed normotension with no antihypertensive treatment in 6 children. One child had a technically successful PTRA and improved BP with reduced requirement for antihypertensive treatment. Technical failure of the endovascular intervention occurred in a boy with severe FMD who underwent successful surgical autotransplantation of the kidney.


Endovascular therapy of RAS in children with consequential development of malignant RVH despite antihypertensive drugs represents the treatment of choice. PTRA and/or stent implantation are technically and clinically feasible and safe in this group of children. Optimal treatment results in children can be expected in a clinical environment with successful interdisciplinary cooperation between the pediatrician, interventional radiologist and pediatric surgeon.

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