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EMBO J. 1991 Dec;10(12):3851-9.

Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the progesterone receptor.

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Hormones et Reproduction INSERM U 135, Faculté de Médecine Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.


The nuclear localization of the progesterone receptor is mediated by two signal sequences: one is constitutive and lies in the hinge region (between the DNA and steroid binding domains), the other is hormone dependent and is localized in the second zinc finger of the DNA binding domain. The use of various inhibitors of energy synthesis in cells expressing permanently or transiently the wild-type receptor or a receptor mutated within the nuclear localization signals, demonstrated that the nuclear residency of the receptor reflects a dynamic situation: the receptor diffusing into the cytoplasm and being constantly and actively transported back into the nucleus. The existence of this nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttle mechanism was confirmed by receptor transfer from one nucleus to the other in heterokaryons. Preliminary evidence was obtained, using oestrogen receptor, that this phenomenon may be of general significance for steroid receptors.

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