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J Acoust Soc Am. 2009 Apr;125(4):1906-10. doi: 10.1121/1.3083223.

Wideband nonlinear time reversal seismo-acoustic method for landmine detection.

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Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, USA.


Acoustic and seismic waves provide a method to localize compliant mines by vibrating the top plate and a thin soil layer above the mine. This vibration is mostly linear, but also includes a small nonlinear deviation. The main goal of this paper is to introduce a method of processing that uses phase-inversion to observe nonlinear effects in a wide frequency band. The method extracts a nonlinear part of surface velocity from two similar broadcast signals of opposite sign by summing and cancelling the linear components and leaving the nonlinear components. This phase-inversion method is combined with time reversal focusing to provide increased seismic vibration and enhance the nonlinear effect. The experiments used six loudspeakers in a wood box placed over sand in which inert landmines were buried. The nonlinear surface velocity of the sand with a mine compared to the sand without a mine was greater as compared to a linear technique.


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