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J Agric Food Chem. 2009 May 27;57(10):4342-51. doi: 10.1021/jf8029176. Epub 2009 Apr 8.

Effect of a cellulase treatment on extraction of antioxidant phenols from black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) pomace.

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Department of Food Biosciences, School of Chemistry, Food Biosciences and Pharmacy, The University of Reading, PO Box 226, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6AP, United Kingdom.


The effect of a commercial cellulase preparation on phenol liberation and extraction from black currant pomace was studied. The enzyme used, which was from Trichoderma spp., was an effective "cellulase-hemicellulase" blend with low β-glucosidase activity and various side activities. Enzyme treatment significantly increased plant cell wall polysaccharide degradation as well as increasing the availability of phenols for subsequent methanolic extraction. The release of anthocyanins and other phenols was dependent on reaction parameters, including enzyme dosage, temperature, and time. At 50 °C, anthocyanin yields following extraction increased by 44% after 3 h and by 60% after 1.5 h for the lower and higher enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S), respectively. Phenolic acids were more easily released in the hydrolytic mixture (supernatant) and, although a short hydrolysis time was adequate to release hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA) required longer times. The highest E/S value of 0.16 gave a significant increase of flavonol yields in all samples. The antioxidant capacity of extracts, assessed by scavenging of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and the ferric reducing antioxidant potential depended on the concentration and composition of the phenols present.

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