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IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2009 Mar-Apr;28(2):46-57. doi: 10.1109/MEMB.2009.931787.

Multiscale modeling in rodent ventricular myocytes.

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  • 1Department of Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, 92093-0412, USA.

Erratum in

  • IEEE Eng Med Biol Mag. 2009 May-Jun;28(3):65.


There is a growing body of experimental evidence suggesting that the Ca(2+) signaling in ventricular myocytes is characterized by a high gradient near the cell membrane and a more uniform Ca(2+) distribution in the cell interior [1]--[7]. An important reason for this phenomenon might be that in these cells the t-tubular system forms a network of extracellular space, extending deep into the cell interior. This allows the electrical signal, that propagates rapidly along the cell membrane, to reach the vicinity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), where intracellular Ca(2+) required for myofilament activation is stored [1], [8]--[11]. Early studies of cardiac muscle showed that the t-tubules are found at intervals of about 2 lm along the longitudinal cell axis in close proximity to the Z-disks of the sarcomeres [12]. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that the t-tubular system has also longitudinal extensions [9]--[11], [13].

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