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Indian J Pediatr. 2009 Mar;76(3):297-308. doi: 10.1007/s12098-009-0056-7. Epub 2009 Apr 6.

Diagnosis and management of cyanotic congenital heart disease: part II.

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Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Texas-Houston Medical School/Children's Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.


In this review, the clinical features and management of less commonly encountered cyanotic cardiac lesions are reviewed. Pathophysiology, clinical features, laboratory studies and management are discussed. The clinical and non-invasive laboratory features of these cardiac defects are sufficiently characteristic for the diagnosis and invasive cardiac catheterization and angiographic studies are not routinely required. Such studies may be needed either to define features that could not be clearly defined by non-invasive studies or prior to performing trans-catheter interventions. Surgical correction or effective palliation is possible at relatively low risk. But, residual defects, some requiring repeat catheter or surgical intervention, may be seen in a significant percentage of patients and consequently, continued follow-up after surgery is recommended.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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