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Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2009 Nov;15(9):655-9. doi: 10.1016/j.parkreldis.2009.02.015. Epub 2009 Apr 5.

The current prevalence and factors associated with tardive dyskinesia among Filipino schizophrenic patients.

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Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Santo Tomas Hospital, Manila, Philippines.



To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with tardive dyskinesia (TD) among Filipino patients with schizophrenia admitted at the National Center for Mental Health.


Cross-sectional study.


A total of 227 inpatients fulfilling the DSM-IV TR criteria for schizophrenia participated in the study. Demographic data including age, disease duration and medication intake were obtained. The Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and Simpson Angus Rating Scale (SARS) were performed on all patients. Odds of developing TD in relation to the different variables were computed. The association between study variables and development of TD was also evaluated using the Chi-square test.


Our cohort of patients had a mean age of 40 (range: 19-73 years old), had a mean disease duration of 6 years, had a daily neuroleptic dose of 700 mg in chlorpromazine equivalent, and had a lifetime neuroleptic exposure of at least 5 years. The prevalence rate of TD was 20.3% (46 out of 227 patients). Fifty-three percent of patients had significant extrapyramidal features (SARS > or =3). TD was noted more in females and older age groups. The other factors associated with TD: were those patients with longer duration of illness and those patients with longer cumulative exposure to neuroleptic drugs. There was no association found with regard to the presence of diabetes mellitus type II, to the use of anticholinergic drugs, to the history of substance abuse and to the history of electroconvulsive therapy.


Despite the predominant use of first-generation antipsychotic agents, the prevalence of TD among Filipino schizophrenic patients is similar to that reported among Asians, but lower than that reported among our Western counterparts. The results may be affected by differences in methodological, racial and genetic determinants.

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