Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Immunol. 2009 Apr 15;182(8):4899-909. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803242.

Differential requirements for protection against mucosal challenge with Francisella tularensis in the presence versus absence of cholera toxin B and inactivated F. tularensis.

Author information

Center for Immunology and Microbial Disease, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY 12208, USA.


Francisella tularensis is a category A biothreat agent for which there is no approved vaccine and the correlates of protection are not well understood. In particular, the relationship between the humoral and cellular immune response to F. tularensis and the relative importance of each in protection is controversial. Yet, understanding this relationship will be crucial to the development of an effective vaccine against this organism. We demonstrate, for the first time, a differential requirement for humoral vs cellular immunity in vaccine-induced protection against F. tularensis infection, and that the requirement for Ab observed in some protection studies, may be overcome through the induction of enhanced cellular immunity. Specifically, following intranasal/mucosal immunization of mice with inactivated F. tularensis organisms plus the cholera toxin B subunit, we observe increased production of IgG2a/2c vs IgG1 Ab, as well as IFN-gamma, indicating induction of a Th1 response. In addition, the requirement for F. tularensis-specific IgA Ab production, observed in studies following immunization with inactivated F. tularensis alone, is eliminated. Thus, these data indicate that enhanced Th1 responses can supersede the requirement for anti-F. tularensis-specific IgA. This observation also has important ramifications for vaccine development against this organism.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center