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Mod Pathol. 2009 Jun;22(6):753-61. doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2009.12. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with hyperplastic germinal centres: a neoplasia with origin in the outer zone of the germinal centre? Clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study of 10 cases with follicular T-cell markers.

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1
Department of Histopathology, University College, London, UK. m.rodriguez-justo@ucl.ac.uk

Abstract

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma whose natural history is not fully understood. Up to 17% of cases can present histologically with hyperplastic germinal centres (pattern I). The accurate recognition of Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with pattern I remains a challenge and therefore the aim of this study is to phenotypically and morphologically characterize this variant with the use of the follicular helper T-cell (T(FH)) markers PD1, CXCL-13 and ICOS. Out of the 88 Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma cases reviewed, 10 showed hyperplastic follicles. Molecular probe methods for the detection of T-cell and B-cell clonality, as well as in-situ hybridization probes for EBV RNA expression, were carried out to leave no question as to the establishment of the diagnosis in each case. Of the 10 cases, all (100%) showed strong positive PD1 staining in perifollicular areas and in neoplastic cells surrounding small veins. CXCL13 and ICOS showed a similar staining pattern. By contrast, CD10 was found to only weakly label the neoplastic T cells, with only 5-10% of the target cell population staining for this marker. EBV was found in 9/10 cases. Clinically, 8/9 cases presented with stage IIIB/IVB and in 2/10 cases consecutive biopsies showed 'progression' from pattern I to classical Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma. In conclusion we have shown that the T(FH) cells markers PD1, CXCL13 and ICOS are useful adjuncts in the diagnosis of Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma with hyperplastic germinal centres. PD1 also highlighted the presence of neoplastic cells in the outer zone of lymphoid follicles, suggesting that Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (pattern I) may originate from T(FH) cells in this region, in accordance with previous immunological studies. As the majority of cases in our series presented clinically with advanced stage disease, progression from pattern I to classical Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma may represent histological evolution rather than clinical progression.

PMID:
19329936
DOI:
10.1038/modpathol.2009.12
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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