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Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2009 Apr;59(Pt 4):735-44. doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.005694-0.

Classification of the taxon 2 and taxon 3 complex of Bisgaard within Gallibacterium and description of Gallibacterium melopsittaci sp. nov., Gallibacterium trehalosifermentans sp. nov. and Gallibacterium salpingitidis sp. nov.

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Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Faculty of Life Science, University of Copenhagen, 4 Stigbøjlen, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.


This investigation was based on 23 isolates from several European countries collected over the past 30 years, and included characterization of all isolates. Published data on amplified fragment length polymorphism typing of isolates representing all biovars as well as protein profiles were used to select strains that were then further characterized by polyamine profiling and sequencing of 16S rRNA, infB, rpoB and recN genes. Comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a monophyletic group within the avian 16S rRNA group of the Pasteurellaceae, which currently includes the genera Avibacterium, Gallibacterium and Volucribacter. Five monophyletic subgroups related to Gallibacterium anatis were recognized by 16S rRNA, rpoB, infB and recN gene sequence comparisons. Whole-genome similarity between strains of the five subgroups and the type strain of G. anatis calculated from recN sequences allowed us to classify them within the genus Gallibacterium. In addition, phenotypic data including biochemical traits, protein profiling and polyamine patterns clearly indicated that these taxa are related. Major phenotypic diversity was observed for 16S rRNA gene sequence groups. Furthermore, comparison of whole-genome similarities, phenotypic data and published data on amplified fragment length polymorphism and protein profiling revealed that each of the five groups present unique properties that allow the proposal of three novel species of Gallibacterium, for which we propose the names Gallibacterium melopsittaci sp. nov. (type strain F450(T) =CCUG 36331(T) =CCM 7538(T)), Gallibacterium trehalosifermentans sp. nov. (type strain 52/S3/90(T) =CCUG 55631(T) =CCM 7539(T)) and Gallibacterium salpingitidis sp. nov. (type strain F150(T) =CCUG 15564(T) =CCUG 36325(T) =NCTC 11414(T)), a novel genomospecies 3 of Gallibacterium and an unnamed taxon (group V). An emended description of the genus Gallibacterium is also presented.

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