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J Dent Res. 2009 Mar;88(3):212-8. doi: 10.1177/0022034508330212.

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and taste sensation.

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1
Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Abstract

Humans have 5 basic taste sensations: sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and umami (taste of 1-amino acids). Among 33 genes related to transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, 3--including TRP-melastatin 5 (TRPM5), polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 (PKD1L3), and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 (PKD2L1)--are specifically and abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells. TRP-melastatin 5 is co-expressed with taste receptors T1Rs and T2Rs, and functions as a common downstream component in sweet, bitter, and umami taste signal transduction. In contrast, polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 are co-expressed in distinct subsets of taste receptor cells not expressing TRP-melastatin 5. In the heterologous expression system, cells expressing both polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 responded to sour stimuli, showing a unique "off-response" property. Genetic ablation of poly-cystic kidney disease-2-like 1-expressing cells resulted in elimination of gustatory nerve response to sour stimuli, indicating that cells expressing polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 function as sour taste detectors. These results suggest that polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3/polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 may play a significant role, possibly as taste receptors, in sour taste sensation.

PMID:
19329452
PMCID:
PMC2876190
DOI:
10.1177/0022034508330212
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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