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Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2009 Mar;38(1):27-57, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2009.01.004.

Environmental causes of esophageal cancer.

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Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute/NIH, 6120 Executive Blvd., Bethesda, MD 20892-7232, USA.


This article reviews the environmental risk factors and predisposing conditions for the two main histologic types of esophageal cancer. Tobacco smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, drinking maté, low intake of fresh fruits and vegetables, achalasia, and low socioeconomic status increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Results of investigations on other potential risk factors, including opium consumption, intake of hot drinks, eating pickled vegetables, poor oral health, and exposure to human papillomavirus, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, acetaldehyde, and fumonisins are discussed. Gastroesophageal reflux, obesity, tobacco smoking, hiatal hernia, achalasia, and, probably, absence of H pylori in the stomach increase the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Results of studies investigating other factors are also discussed.

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